Chaos Game Representation

17th March 2009

Chaos Game Representation is a graphical representation of a sequence. It is a Method of converting a long one-   dimensional sequence (e.g.  English text or Genetic sequence) into a graphical form. Chaos game representation (CGR) is a novel holistic approach that provides a visual image of a DNA sequence quite different from the traditional linear arrangement of nucleotides.Chaos Game Representation (CGR) can recognize patterns in the nucleotide sequences, obtained from databases, of a class of genes using the techniques of fractal structures and by considering DNA sequences as strings composed of four units, G, A, T and C. Such recognition of patterns relies on visual identification It is an application of non-random input to an iterated function system. The method was first proposed for DNA sequence, now it is being used for any arbitrary symbols. CGR exhibits striking pattern characteristics of the genome. Since the patterns are unique to genomes this can be used to identify genome fragments or to detect horizontal gene transfers. In addition, Quantitative analysis of CGR patterns can be used for sequence comparison both   Alignment-free and alignment-based sequence comparisons are possible with CGR.

Bioinformatics basics

24th February 2009  


Bioinformatics was applied in the creation and maintenance of a database to store biological information at the beginning of the "genomic revolution", such as nucleotide and amino acid sequences. Development of this type of database involved not only design issues but the development of complex interfaces whereby researchers could both access existing data as well as submit new or revised data.


Bioinformatics Tools

Lots of online tools are available for the use and benefit of bioinformaticians , they are helpful in many ways.We are attempting to short list a few of them which are useful in day to day activities of bioinformaticians.

Research Articles

Please find research articles prepared by me as part of the coursework.I thank my mentor Dr.Achuthsankar S.Nair for his valuable contributions and suggestions.